Starting with Becker (1968), the economic analysis of crime has grown to become an important research agenda. However, most of this work has been concerned with the activity of individual offenders, while organised crime has been largely neglected, especially from an empirical perspective. Indeed, criminal organisations are not even mentioned in the surveys by Freeman (1999), Dills et al.(2010) and Ehrlich (2010). Yet, organised crime has profound economic consequences, in addition to obvious social and psychological costs.
Pinotti, P., 2015. The causes and consequences of organised crime: Preliminary evidence across countries. The Economic Journal, 125(586), pp.F158-F174.